It is usually associated in our view with the amount of black or white pigment in the paint. It is usually measured on an achromatic (gray) scale from black to white. Although people, when choosing a hue scheme, often pay attention to shade, in reality, variations in luminous density have the most effect on the character of the interior.
Saturation is determined by the proportion of the main pigment in the total volume of paint. The dye formed, for example, by pure red pigment, has a maximum saturation. It will change when adding black or white pigment, or pigment corresponding to the shade that lies on the opposite side of the color wheel. Similar to the gradation of density, the saturation gradation is also adjusted depending on the proportional addition of black, white or contrasting hue. Tones of gray tones are called colorless (achromatic), they are formed by mixing black and white or two contrasting dyes in equal parts and differ in density.
The schemes are built on various combinations of tones, density and saturation. The main of them are monochrome, analogous, complementary and achromatic. In the monochrome variant, only one shade is used, this gives a feeling of absolute wholeness, the diversity in which is introduced by varying the density and dye richness. Similar schemes are based on the use of reflections located close to one another on the wheel. Due to the proximity of shades, the effect of harmonic tranquility arises, which, in order to overcome possible monotony, requires the introduction of different variations of density and richness of color. Complementary variants are built on the reflections of the opposite parts of the wheel, their contrast adds intrigue, gives it an exciting sound.
In order to somewhat obscure the effect of such a contrast, reflections usually soften. Achromatic schemes can be built only on black, white and intermediate gray tones, or with the addition of some shade enriching the overall effect. Achromatic variants are often used for the visible association of space or its increase in vision. It should be remembered that these ones are not a rigid set of rules, but only the basic principles, moreover, not all combinations fit into clear schemes.
Interior hue has a different impact on those who are in it. The one chosen for the walls and the floor significantly affects the perception of the size and shape of the room and even the air temperature in it. The objects of warm, dark and saturated reflections seem closer, while the space is compressed and “insulated”; cold, light and slightly saturated colors make the room bigger and colder. Some elements of the room or its properties can either be strengthened or weakened. And again: warm, dark saturated ones attract attention, and therefore it is reasonable to use them in specially selected elements of the interior. To draw attention to some part of the whole can also be due to the use of contrast of hue and tone.
The psychological properties are well known. For example, red has a stimulating effect, others, blue, calm and even depress. Yellow is usually considered fun, green is comfortable, orange is annoying. Dye psychology is taken into account in solving the interiors: in restaurants, red is often used to increase the appetite of visitors; in the decoration of the aircraft soft greenish hues are used for the overall soothing effect; in hospitals pastel shades are used that create a feeling of peace. It especially affects children, and therefore in kindergartens a whole system of “coding” is usually built: clean, bright, saturated colors in areas of activity, lighter, slightly saturated ones in recreation areas.